The forging of bilateral relations
At the beginning of September 2008, following the recognition of the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by the Russian Federation, Moscow forged diplomatic ties with the mentioned breakaway republics. In the second half of October 2008, it was announced that the Russian President appointed ambassadors in Sukhumi and Cchinvali. Russian Ambassador in Sukhumi Semyon Grigoryev presented his Letter of Credence to President Sergei Bagapsh in the middle of December 2008.
On behalf of Russia, the Russian Ambassador in Sukhumi is institutionally responsible for the development of bilateral cooperation between the Russian Federation and Abkhazia. According to (1) he is an educated orientalist and he is known in diplomatic circles as a representative of classic Russian orientalist school. He worked in Moscowʼs diplomatic mission in Iran, later as a press attaché of the Russian Embassy in Iran and as a diplomatic advisor at the Russian Embassy in Afghanistan. In the period 2005 – 2007, as a representative of the Russian Foreign Affairs Ministry he was the head of Russian expert delegation during negotiations about the conduction of agreements pertaining to the withdrawal of Russian military bases from Georgia. He also dealt with the questions of Georgian-Abkhaz conflict settlement. In 2008, he worked as the Deputy Director of Southern Caucasus Affairs Department at the Foreign Affairs Ministry and also as the head of a section of this department. He is the holder of the diplomatic rank the Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador of 2nd Class.
The current plenipotentiary representative of Abkhazia in Moscow Igor Akhba is responsible for the development of bilateral relations with Moscow on behalf of Abkhazia. According to (2) he was born in Sukhumi in 1949, he graduated from the Faculty of Law at the Lomonosov University. In 1975, he obtained a research degree from the Institute of State and Law. He worked as a research fellow with the research and development centre of the Soviet Culture Ministry and as an apparatus official with the Supreme Council of the USSR. From 1992 to 2004, he was named the plenipotentiary representative of Abkhazia in Moscow. In 2004, he held the office of the Foreign Affairs Minister of Abkhazia. Since 2008, he has worked as an Ambassador to Abkhazia in the Russian Federation. He is the holder of the diplomatic rank Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador.
When the State Duma of the Russian Federation endorsed Draft Agreement (3) of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance between Russia and breakaway republics (framework agreements), the Federation Council ratified them at the end of October 2008. The agreements form legislative basis for the development of mutual relations between Russia and Abkhazia and South Ossetia in the field of political, economic, military-technological and humanitarian collaboration. A special clause included in the agreements offers the possibility of offering double nationality to the citizens of Russia, Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In accordance with the provisions of the agreements in question, Russian rouble is introduced as the official currency in the separatist republics. Framework agreements also encompass the commitment to the right according to which the army of the other contracting party is allowed to use the innovations of military infrastructure and military objects in the territory of the particular state. In this context Moscow plans to deploy 3,700 soldiers in two military bases in Abkhazia.
According to the statement of the Foreign Affairs Minister of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov from the second half of December 2008 (4) twenty treaties following the framework treaty between the Russian Federation and Abkhazia, the most important of which pertain to the area of security, are in the stage of preparation. Lavrov said that he had agreed with the Foreign Affairs Minister of Abkhazia Sergey Shamba on the intensification of works on the agreements so that these can be signed at the beginning of 2009.
Who does Moscow negotiate with
Abkhaz side is represented on the ministerial level by Foreign Affairs Minister Sergey Shamba. He was born in Guduata in 1951. According to (5) he studied at the Faculty of History of the Tbilisi State Pedagogical Institute. After the completion of military service he worked in the Institute of Abkhaz Language, Literature and History. We worked as laboratory technician, assistant, fellow researcher and scientific secretary at the Department of Archaeology of the mentioned institution. He defended his dissertation in the field of historical sciences. He took part in several archaeological expeditions in the territory of Soviet Abkhazia. Later he was an MP in the Abkhaz Parliament and the Head of the Committee for Science, Culture and Education. In 1990, he became the Chairperson of the socio-political movement Ajdgylara. During the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, he worked as the First Deputy Director of Abkhaz Defence Minister. In 1996, he was appointed as the Chairperson of the Abkhaz Culture Foundation. In 1997, he became Foreign Affairs Minister of Abkhazia. In 1998, he defended doctor dissertation at the Yerevan Archaeology Institute. In June 2004, he was a presidential candidate of the organisation United Abkhazia. He founded and headed the Socio-democratic Party of Abkhazia shortly before the elections. He obtained nearly 10 per cent of votes in the elections taking the third place. Since December 2004, he has held the office of the Foreign Affairs Minister again. From the point of view of regional origin, Shamba is one of the most influential representatives of the so-called Guduata clan. He is respected by Moscow as well as western partners. The media mention him as a possible candidate in the next presidential elections (6).
In contrast to skilful Shamba, efforts to pursue independent policy can be attributed to Abkhaz President Bagapsh. Bagapshʼs expression of disagreement with the establishment of Russian military bases in Abkhaz territory is mentioned in support of this thesis (7). However, in an interview for the daily Rossijskaja gazeta (8) Bagapsh denied information that he had spoken up against the deployment of Russian military bases in Abkhaz territory. His statement that not the deployment of new bases, but the reconstruction of existent objects is planned in Abkhazia was said to have been misinterpreted. Also in the case of the veracity of original information, it is apparent that his disagreement with the construction of bases is of declarative rather than realistic nature.
Sergei Bagapsh was born in Sukhumi in 1949. According to (9) he studied at the Georgian Institute of Subtropical Agriculture in Sukhumi. He worked as the Head of Agronomic Section of the Moscow Sovkhoz of Volatile Oils. Having fulfilled military service, he started to work in Komsomol where he became instructor with Abkhazian regional committee, the head of the information section of the central committee of the Komsomolʼs Georgian branch, the head of the department of working and agrarian youth of the Komsomolʼs Georgian branch, the secretary of Abkhaz regional propaganda and agitation committee of the Georgian Komsomol and the secretary general of the Abkhaz regional committee of the Georgian Komsomol. Subsequently he worked as the Secretary General of Ochamchira District Committee of the Georgian Communist Party. Later he worked as the deputy director of National Agricultural Committee of Soviet Abkhazia and the chairperson of Ochamchira district council of national councillors. After 1991, he became an MP in the Abkhaz Parliament and the first Vice Prime Minister of the Abkhaz Government. In 1999 he left the Government and became the director of national power company Chernomorenergo. In 2004, the party United Abkhazia and the association of the veterans of Georgian-Abkhaz war Amtsakhara named him as their joint presidential candidate. He won the election with a close majority of votes. After the conflict with rival candidate Raul Khadjimba supported by Moscow and contradictory decisions of the Supreme Court, the National Rapprochement Agreement mediated by Vladimir Kolesnikov was achieved at the beginning of December 2004. In 2005, Bagapsh ascended to the office of the president and his rival candidate took the office of the vice-president. In view of the regional ties in Ochamchira, Bagapsh is considered to be a representative of Ochamchira Abkhazians.
According to the statement of Mamuka Areshidze for the portal DespiteBorders.com (10) today there is the consolidation of Abkhaz ethnic minority under way for the purpose of preventing Moscow from appointing people of Russian nationality to important positions in the country. In terms of the mentioned thesis supported by Georgia there is also decline in competition of the so-called Gudauta and Ochamchira clan with the aim of preserving Abkhaz ethnicity.
Russian influence in Abkhazia
While Semyon Grigoryev became Russian ambassador in Sukhumi, Gennady Nikitchenko is labelled as the unofficial consul of Moscow. He is an ethnic Russian domesticated in Abkhazia, the Chairperson of Abkhaz Congress of Russian Communities and a member of the Council of Compatriots with Russian State Duma. According to (11) he was born in Yenakiyeve in the Donetsk region in Ukrainian SSR in 1946. He served in the Soviet Army in Zhitomir. He worked in metallurgical factory in his home town and studied at Mining and Metallurgical Institute in the town of Kommunarsk. His specialisation was engineer – electrician. Later he worked as chief engineer in the Ochamchira poultry factory and the head of the mechanisation department of the Ochamchira trust. He is a veteran of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. He was the chief of staff of Mergulsk battalion and deputy commander of the eastern front for technology and arms. Since 1994 he has been the chairperson of Abkhaz Congress of Russian Communities and the member of the Council of Compatriots of the State Duma of the Russian Federation.
The first Deputy Defence Minister and the Chief of General Staff Anatoly Zaycev is close to Moscow as well. He was born in Choybalsan in eastern Mongolia in 1945. According to (12) his father served in the Soviet Army, his predecessors through the female line came from Abkhazia. He had lived in Transbaikalia till he entered Blagoveshchensk Tank Training Camp. After its completion, he studied at Military Academy of Armoured Forces at the Military Academy of USSR General Staff. He held all functions beginning with the commander of tank platoon end ending with chief of staff of military district. He served in the Far East, in Transbaikalia, Ukraine, Eastern Germany and Czechoslovakia. He worked as main military advisor in Syria and deputy commander of the Transbaikalia military district. In 2003, he obtained Abkhaz nationality and joined the Abkhaz Army at the invitation of the Abkhaz Government. In 2004, he was appointed Deputy Defence Minister of Abkhazia and in 2005 he became Chief of Abkhaz General Staff.
In the media (13) Alexander Pavlushko, who was removed from the position of chief of staff of joint peacekeeping forces at the end of November 2007 and designated as Deputy Defence Minister of Abkhazia at the end of April 2008, is mentioned in similar context.
The most influential representative of Moscow in Abkhazia is the Deputy Chairperson of Russian Parliamentary Committee for Security Vladimir Kolesnikov. He and his powerful brother Viktor were born in Guduata in Abkhazia in 1948. According to (14) Vladimir Kolesnikov studied on the Faculty of Law of Rostov State University. He worked as investigator, chief investigator, chief investigator of major criminal cases, deputy commander of the department of major criminal cases and deputy commander of criminal investigation department. Later he became the commander of an emergency squad and the commander of criminal activity investigation department. Subsequently, he left for studies at the Soviet Interior Ministry Academy in Moscow where he gained jurisprudence candidacy. After defending the candidacy, he returned to Rostov upon Don where he worked as a plenipotentiary commander and deputy commander of the organisation and control department of internal administration of the Rostov regional executive committee. Shortly afterwards, he was transferred to Moscow and designated as deputy commander of Russian criminal police. Later he became the commander of the chief administration of criminal investigation of the Russian Interior Ministry. Owing to his merits during civil unrests, he became the first Deputy Interior Minister of Russia. He became the member of interdepartmental committee of the Russian Security Council for Economic Security. In spring 1998, he was recalled from the post of the commander of main criminal investigation administration. He continued in the office of the Deputy Interior Minister. Later, however, due to a conflict with the Interior Minister he handed in a notice. He resumed his career at the Prosecutor Generalʼs Office where he became an advisor to the Prosecutor General and later his deputy. In 2006, he became an assistant of the Russian Justice Minister. In spring 2007, he became an MP for United Russia in the State Duma, vice chairperson of the Defence and Security Parliamentary Committee and the member of the Committee for the Control of Expenditures from Budget Sources. During his office at the Interior Ministry and at the Prosecutor Generalʼs Office he led investigation into a huge number of major criminal causes in Northern and Southern Caucasus including the terrorist attack in Beslan. In the 2004 Abkhaz presidential elections he backed the pro-Russian candidate Raul Khadjimba. In the course of the conflict between Bagapsh and Khadjimba which followied the disputable elections, he negotiated the National Rapprochement Agreement. The media are speculating about Kolesnikovʼs possible candidacy for Abkhaz president (15).
Abkhaz veteran movements: direction reintegration?
Bagapshʼs policy is upheld by the unofficial leader of Abkhaz veterans the Abkhaz Defence Minister Merab Kishmariya. He was born in Ochamchira in 1961. According to (16) after the end of military service in Turkmenistan, he completed his engineer studies at Alma-Ata military academy. He was the commander of the motorised artillery battery of the 162nd motorised regiment 58th motorised artillery division of the 36th army force in Kizil-Arvata in Turkmenistan. During the war in Afghanistan, he was the commander of motorised artillery company, commander of commanding company, deputy commander of the motorised artillery battalion of 371st guard motorised artillery regiment 5th guard motorised artillery division of the 40th military army. He participated actively in operations in Kandahar, Herat, Jalalabad, Panshera etc. In 1988, he was injured during a mine explosion by a subsequent sniper shot. After his recovery, he again enlisted in the 40th Army in the town of Kushke in Turkmenistan (on the border with Afghanistan). In 1989, he returned back to Abkhazia and acceded to the office of Ochamchira military commissioner. Later he worked as the chief inspector at the Ochamchira Regional Interior Department. In 1992, he was designated as the chief of staff of partisan movement on the eastern front. Afterwards he became commander of eastern front. Since 1993 he worked as a Deputy Defence Minister of Abkhazia and the First Deputy Defence Minister and Abkhaz Military Commissioner. At the end of July 2007, he was appointed RA Defence Minister. He is an Ochamchira Abkhazian and leader of the most influential Abkhaz veteran movement Amtsakhara.
Current Vice-President Raul Khadjimba was the co-founder and leader of the movement Amtsakhara. After this organisation had supported Bagapsh in 2004 presidential elections, there has been a dissension inside it and Khadjimba founded the veteran movement Aruaa which is considered to be an opposition subject at present. Khadjimba was supported by Moscow in the elections. Nowadays, however, according to the statement of Mamuka Areshidze for the portal DespiteBorders.com (17) we may say that he is a case of a figure which Moscow has been disappointed with. According to (18) Khadjimba was born in Tkvarcheli in Abkhazia in 1958. After the end of military service, he worked in the Tkvarcheli municipal committee of Komsomol and as a locksmith in a relaxation facility in the Sukhumi district. Later he studied at the Faculty of Law of the Abkhaz State University. After the completion of his studies, he worked as legal consultant in the Sukhumi Chemical Plant. In the second half of the 1980s, he completed an in-service training at KGB University in Minsk. Later he became the captain of Tkvarcheli KGB department. During the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, he served on eastern front as the commander of military intelligence and counter-intelligence. Then he worked as the director of Abkhaz security service, the head of the department for fight against smuggling of the Abkhaz State Customs Committee and Vice Chair of Abkhaz State Customs Committee. From 1999 to 2001, he was the Head of Abkhaz State Security Service. In the period 2001 – 2002 he was the First Vice PM of the Abkhaz Government. In the period 2002 – 2003, he was the First Vice PM and Defence Minister. From 2003 he was the Prime Minister of the Abkhaz Government. Supported by Moscow, he stood for president in autumn 2004, but to no avail. He has held the office of the Abkhaz President since 2005 following the achievement of the agreements with his rival candidate Bagapsh mediated by Kolesnikov.
The leader of the movement Aruaa is Vladimir Arshba, who has held the office of the military questions advisor to the president since August 2008. He was born in Tbilisi in 1959 in the family of a professional soldier. According to (19) he studied at the Tbilisi Artillery College, afterwards he served in the Company of Soviet Troops in Germany as the commander of radiolocation complex in terms of an acoustic and radiolocation intelligence troop. Later he served in Afghanistan as the commander of an optical intelligence platoon in terms of an artillery regiment. Subsequently he held the rank of the first lieutenant of the acoustic and radiolocation intelligence. He took part in eight army operations of the 108th motorised artillery division of the 40th Army. In 1982, he was seriously injured during an evacuation. From 1983, he served in Armenia as the commander of commanding artillery battery of the 7th Army. During a massive earthquake in Armenia in 1988, he participated actively in live rescue and the settlement of natural disaster consequences in Spitak. Later he served as deputy military commander of the Idjevanska Oblast region in the border region of the ethnic conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan and as chief of staff of artillery division. From 1989 he served in Abkhazia. He worked as military commissioner in Tkvarcheli and as the Commander of the Agudzersk battalion of the Abkhaz Regiment (the so-called Abkhaz Guard). Later he became the vice vhairperson of the Soldiers – Internationalists Association of Abkhazia (Afghanistan war veteran organisation). In 1992, as a commander of a battalion he defended the positions near the river Inguri on the Abkhaz-Georgian border. He participated in the organisation of the defence of the Red Bridge in Sukhumi. On the grounds of a commission issued by the head of the Abkhaz Supreme Council, he started to form a special battalion. However, he suffered injuries during an air raid on Sukhumi. Subsequently, he was transported from Gudauta to Tkvarchali where he worked as a factual commander of eastern front. Later he was transferred back to Guduata where he was designated as the commander of the Abkhaz Army. From October 1992, he held the office of the Defence Minister and then the Military Questions Advisor to the Head of Abkhaz Supreme Council. In 1993 he became the Abkhaz Military Commissioner. In the period 1997 – 2004, he worked as the Deputy Defence Minister and the Chief of Abkhaz General Staff. In 2004 Abkhaz presidential elections, he ran for vice president along with the presidential candidate Sergey Shamba. From 2007, he was the leader of the veteran movement Aruaa. In August 2008, he was appointed military questions advisor to the president. According to the statement of Mamuka Areshidze for the portal DespiteBorders.com (20) the designation of Arshuba as presidential advisor doesn’t represent any reinforcement of movement Aruaaʼs positions. According to him Bagapsh wants to bring closer the people who are in relative opposition at the moment through the appointment. The wining of new members for this organisation is one of Bagapshʼs primary objectives.
In view of the entrepreneurial attractiveness of Abkhazia and the relatively high degree of cohesion of the Abkhaz ethnic minority (21), which is lacking in authority in Abkhazia owing to the low number of inhabitants (22), the Russian Federation will struggle for gradual domination over Abkhaz politics and economy (23). Given the ongoing consolidation of Abkhaz political powers and clans, we may expect in medium-term the growing pressure on the intensification of Abkhaz-Turkish business and political relations, the facilitation of the return of Abkhaz mujahedinʼs descendants as well as the conduction of other steps leading to the reinforcement of Abkhaz ethnic minorityʼs position in terms of the competitive fight against growing Russian influence in Abkhazia. Considering the power dominance of the Russian Federation and ignoring some other factors, we may expect that Abkhaz ethnic minority leaders will gradually give up the efforts to maintain their position of power. As for the capturing of supremacy over Abkhaz politics and economy, Moscow will use Vladimir Kolesnikov as a negative tool and Sergey Shamba, who enjoys considerable popularity not only in the Gudauta region, but also in the whole of Abkhazia, as a positive one (24).
(1) Григорьев, Семен, In: Лентапедия (энциклопедия ньюсмейкеров),
(2) Игорь Ахба назначен Чрезвычайным и Полномочным Послом Абхазии в России. Официальный сайт Президента Республики Абхазия, 14/11/2008, URL:
(3) plné znenia zmlúv je dostupné na URL:
http://www.kremlin.ru/text/docs/2008/09/206583.shtml a http://www.kremlin.ru/text/docs/2008/09/206582.shtml
(4) Россия заключит с Абхазией соглашение по военному сотрудничеству. RIA Novosti, 23/12/2008, URL: http://www.rian.ru/defense_safety/20081223/157904033.html
(5) Lakoba, Stanislav Z.: КТО ЕСТЬ КТО В АБХАЗИИ. Общественно-политическая и военная элита Абхазии 1991–2004 гг.. MOSKVA : Materik 2004, s. 189 – 199, dostupné na URL http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/
(6) Braxatoris, Martin: Bagapš sa v politike snaží zachovať nezávislosť. Gruzínsky politológ Mamuka Arešidze v rozhovore pre DespiteBorders. In: DespiteBorders.com, 19.12.2008, s. 3, URL: /clanky/data/upimages/areshidze.pdf
(7) porov. Braxatoris, Martin: Bagapš sa v politike snaží zachovať nezávislosť. Gruzínsky politológ Mamuka Arešidze v rozhovore pre DespiteBorders. In: DespiteBorders.com, 19.12.2008, s. 2, URL: /clanky/data/upimages/areshidze.pdf
(8) Не бывает плохих народов. Президент Абхазии Сергей Багапш надеется, что в ООН, наконец, услышат правду о ситуации на Кавказе. In: Rossijskaja gazeta, 8.9.2008, URL: http://www.rg.ru/2008/09/08/bagapsh-dz.html
(9) Lakoba, Stanislav Z.: КТО ЕСТЬ КТО В АБХАЗИИ. Общественно-политическая и военная элита Абхазии 1991–2004 гг.. MOSKVA : Materik 2004, s. 157, dostupné na URL http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/
(10) Braxatoris, Martin: Bagapš sa v politike snaží zachovať nezávislosť. Gruzínsky politológ Mamuka Arešidze v rozhovore pre DespiteBorders. In: DespiteBorders.com, 19.12.2008, s. 5, URL: /clanky/data/upimages/areshidze.pdf
(11) Lakoba, Stanislav Z.: КТО ЕСТЬ КТО В АБХАЗИИ. Общественно-политическая и военная элита Абхазии 1991–2004 гг.. MOSKVA : Materik 2004, s. 185, dostupné na URL http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/
(12) Зайцев, Анатолий. In: Лентапедия (энциклопедия ньюсмейкеров), URL: http://www.lenta.ru/lib/14162137/
(13) «Армия Абхазии слаба и деморализована» Виктор Дятликович, корреспондент отдела «Политики» журнала «Русский репортер». In: Expert.ru, 29.5.2008, URL: http://www.expert.ru/printissues/russian_reporter/2008/20/qa_kuteliya/
(14) Колесников, Владимир. In: Лентапедия (энциклопедия ньюсмейкеров), URL: http://lenta.ru/lib/14159597/full.htm
(15) pozri napr. СМИ: Следующим президентом Абхазии может стать ставленник Путина. ROSBALT, 17.11.2008, URL: http://www.rosbalt.ru/2008/11/17/542415.html, porov. Braxatoris, Martin: Bagapš sa v politike snaží zachovať nezávislosť. Gruzínsky politológ Mamuka Arešidze v rozhovore pre DespiteBorders. In: DespiteBorders.com, 19.12.2008, s. 3, URL: /clanky/data/upimages/areshidze.pdf
(16) Lakoba, Stanislav Z.: КТО ЕСТЬ КТО В АБХАЗИИ. Общественно-политическая и военная элита Абхазии 1991–2004 гг.. MOSKVA : Materik 2004, s. 176, dostupné na URL http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/
(17) Braxatoris, Martin: Bagapš sa v politike snaží zachovať nezávislosť. Gruzínsky politológ Mamuka Arešidze v rozhovore pre DespiteBorders. In: DespiteBorders.com, 19.12.2008, s. 3, URL: /clanky/data/upimages/areshidze.pdf
(18) Lakoba, Stanislav Z.: КТО ЕСТЬ КТО В АБХАЗИИ Общественно-политическая и военная элита Абхазии 1991–2004 гг.. MOSKVA : Materik 2004, s. 172, dostupné na URL: http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/
(19) Lakoba, Stanislav Z.: КТО ЕСТЬ КТО В АБХАЗИИ Общественно-политическая и военная элита Абхазии 1991–2004 гг.. MOSKVA : Materik 2004, s. 154, dostupné na URL: http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/
(20) Braxatoris, Martin: Bagapš sa v politike snaží zachovať nezávislosť. Gruzínsky politológ Mamuka Arešidze v rozhovore pre DespiteBorders. In: DespiteBorders.com, 19.12.2008, s. 6, URL: /clanky/data/upimages/areshidze.pdf
(22) pozri: НАСЕЛЕНИЕ АБХАЗИИ, URL: http://www.ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru/rnabkhazia.html
(23) v prospech tvrdenia o snahe Moskvy uskutočniť daný proces postupne, t.j. bez výrazného vyhrotenia situácie, svedčí vysoká atraktívnosť abcházskeho pobrežia z hľadiska turistického ruchu, do ktorého investuje primátor Moskvy Jurij Lužkov (pozri. napr. Braxatoris, Martin: Lokálne konflikty alebo skutočná hrozba vojny? Súčasný stav mierového procesu v Abcházsku. In: DespiteBorders.com, 16.10.2007, s. 1-2, URL: /clanky/data/upimages/abchazsko_SK.pdf). Objavil sa dokonca názor bývalého veľvyslanca Gruzínska v Moskve Erosi Kicmarišviliho, že fakt, že sa augustový konflikt medzi Ruskom a Gruzínskom neodohral v Abcházsku, ale v Južnom Osetsku, súvisí s relevanciou podnikateľských aktivít v turistickom ruchu (pozri Грузия готова обнародовать августовские материалы, включая переписку Медведева и Саакашвили. In: NEWSru.com, 26.12.2008, URL: http://www.newsru.com/world/26dec2008/secret.html
(24) porov. Москва проталкивает тандем Шамба – Колесников. In: Наша Абхазия, 27.01.2009, URL: http://abkhazeti.info/press/1233113616.php